My father wrote this booklet as a series of articles in 1973, but it remains one of the best studies available of the Biblical teaching on the conscience. I have just had it typed and uploaded it to http://loveintruth.com/dgf/conscience
Do you know, for example the difference between the Biblical meanings of the Weak Conscience, the Evil Conscience the Insensitive Conscience or the Pure Conscience? The Scriptural usage of these terms is carefully dealt with, but the book begins with a more basic problem:
Every human being has a conscience, but the way in which it operates varies immensely. There are several opinions as to what precisely conscience is. It is fashionable to regard conscience as nothing more than man’s natural response to the ethical standards which surround him as he grows up. Christians believe, on the other hand, that conscience is a divine gift by which God speaks to the soul.
This raises an important question. If God gave us the conscience, then surely it must be reliable, must it not? David Fountain continues:
However we need to ask ourselves the question “How reliable is conscience?” Is it infallible? What about differences among Christians, where their consciences react in opposite directions on the same issue? This subject is very important in these days, not only because the very idea of conscience is under assault, but because Christians themselves have a responsibility to use this precious gift for their spiritual advantage.
In some measure the low standard of spiritual life among us is the result of a failure to appreciate the role played by our consciences. We shall deal first of all with conscience in the natural man.
I think you will find this material well worth reading!